HISTORY OF THE MONTMORENCY CHERRY

 
The history of the ‘Montmorency’ tart cherry extends back to ancient Rome.[2] The Romans are credited with discovering this tiny red fruit along the Black Sea in Asia Minor. After Roman legionnaires discovered the tart cherries, they carried them with them and introduced them to the rest of Roman territory. They planted cherry trees alongside Roman roads and soldiers used the fruit for food and the wood to build weapons and repair equipment.

In addition to being used as food and repairing equipment the cherry was reported to also help relieve pain in the body. Thus, the pain relieving benefits of cherry were discovered and shared for centuries into the future. However, it wasn’t until the 1950’s when the first peer -reviewed study was published on the pain relieving properties of the tart cherry.

MONTMORENCY TART CHERRY

 

Research suggests tart cherries may reduce inflammation and ease the pain of arthritis and gout. Emerging studies suggest cherries may offer protection against heart disease, reduce the risk of diabetes and insulin resistance syndrome and aid in the treatment, high blood pressure and possible prevention of memory loss.

  • Tart cherries contain powerful anti-oxidants, called anthocyanins which provide the distinctive red color in cherries.
  • Tart cherries are good source of beta carotene (vitamin A).
  • Tart cherries are one of the few known food sources of melatonin – a potent antioxidant that helps regulate our circadian rhythms and natural sleep patterns.
  • They provide potassium, magnesium, iron, folate and fiber.

 

Anthocyanins

Anthocyanins that give tart cherries their deep, rich color belong to a large group of phenolic compounds called flavonoids. Of the 150 different flavonoids found in plants, anthocyanins appear to have the greatest antioxidant capacity (Elliott 1992).

Research conducted at Michigan State University found that tart cherries contained the highest concentrations of anthocyanins 1 and 2 – which help block enzymes in the body called cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (popularly known as COX-1 and COX-2) (Seeram and Momin et al. 2001). Some pain medication works by inhibiting COX-1 and COX-2, which may explain why some people find that tart cherries help ease the pain of arthritis and gout.

The researchers found that cherries were the richest source of these beneficial compounds compared to various berries, including raspberries, blackberries and strawberries. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in blueberries.

Tart cherries contain significantly more anthocyanins and phenols than do sweet cherries. For example, one study found that the total phenolic content of sweet cherries ranged from 92 to 147 milligrams/100 grams, while the same amount of tart cherries contained up to 312 milligrams, or more than twice the phenols (Kim 2005, Chandra 1992).

Melatonin

Tart cherries are one of the few known food sources of melatonin, a potent antioxidant that helps improve the body’s circadian rhythms and natural sleep patterns (Burkhardt 2001).

A study conducted by Reiter and colleagues at the University of Texas Health Science Center found that tart cherries contain substantial amounts of melatonin, at levels higher than normally found in human blood. Montmorency cherries, contain 13.5 nanograms (ng) of melatonin per gram (Burkhardt 2001). Produced naturally by the body’s pineal gland at the apex of the brain, melatonin has been shown to do much more than regulate our sleep-wake cycle. Studies suggest that melatonin may help protect the vascular system, lessen inflammation, and reduce ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with surgery (Tan 2000, 2003, Cuzzocrea 2001, Lissoni 1997, Reiter 2001, 2000).

A study conducted by Reiter and researchers from St. Marianna University of School of Medicine in Japan found that feeding chicks a diet containing plants rich in melatonin raised blood levels of melatonin, indicating that melatonin ingested from the diet is absorbed and enters the general circulation, after which it is capable of binding to sites in the brain and other tissues (Hattori 1995).

Reiter and colleagues speculate that eating just a handful of tart cherries will increase melatonin levels in blood, thereby improving the body’s natural sleep patterns and potentially providing other health benefits.

Arthritis and Gout

For decades, tart cherries have quietly grown a devoted fan base of arthritis sufferers who routinely consumed the fruit to help soothe their symptoms. At the time, the only evidence was anecdotal. Today, however, there appears to be science behind the cherry folklore.

The suspicion that cherries might help with arthritis and gout was first proposed in 1950 (Blau 1950). This preliminary study found that daily cherry consumption helped to relieve “gout attacks” and the pain associated with arthritis. After eating the cherries, the patients in the study had lower blood levels of uric acid. Elevated levels of uric acid are associated with the onset and progression of gout.

Since then, several studies have confirmed this link, including a study from USDA’s Human Nutrition Research Center at the University of California, Davis where researchers found that healthy women (ages 20 to 40 years) who consumed two servings or 280 grams of cherries after an overnight fast showed a 15 percent reduction in uric acid levels, as well as lowered nitric oxide and C-reactive protein levels (Jacob 2003).

The researchers conclude that “…compounds in cherries may inhibit inflammatory pathways” associated with gout.  Additional studies suggest that consumption of cherries may be beneficial for the management and prevention of inflammatory diseases (Kelley 2006, van Acker 1995), including inflammatory pain (Tall 2004).

Diabetes

Tart cherries and their compounds appear to aid in diabetes control and in reducing the complications associated with this disease.

In a study from Michigan State University, partially funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the effects of extracts of anthocyanins from tart cherries were tested on mouse pancreatic cells, which produce the hormone insulin in the presence of glucose (sugar). Results showed that anthocyanin-exposed cells increased insulin production by 50 percent compared to cells not exposed to anthocyanins. The researchers conclude that cherries might be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes Jayaprakasam 2005).

In another study on rats, a single dose of anthocyanins decreased fasting blood glucose levels by 19 percent and improved glucose tolerance by 29 percent. After one month of treatment with anthocyanins, fasting blood glucose levels had dropped to half of the pre-treatment levels and glucose tolerance had improved by up to 41 percent (Cherian 1992).

Small blood vessels, called capillaries, are damaged in diabetes as a result of elevated blood sugar levels. Collagen proteins become linked to the elevated sugar and form abnormal complexes that damage tissues and blood vessels.

One study on rats found that anthocyanins significantly reduced the formation of these abnormal protein complexes (Cohen-Boulakia 2000).

Retinopathy is a serious complication of diabetes, resulting from the overproduction of abnormal proteins produced when the body attempts to repair damaged capillaries. Anthocyanins appear to prevent this damage to blood vessels and also might prevent production of abnormal proteins. In one study, this damage was significantly reduced in 12 diabetic patients who consumed 600 milligrams of anthocyanins a day for two months (Boniface 1996). In another study, 31 patients with diabetic retinopathy showed marked improvement in permeability and a reduced tendency to hemorrhage when treated with anthocyanins (Scharrer 1981).

RESEARCH LINKS

 
How Tart Cherries Help Fight Arthritis

http://blog.arthritis.org/living-with-arthritis/arthritis-diet-cherries/

Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus Cerasus L.) consumption on vascular function in men with early hypertension1 http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/103/6/1531.short

Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22038497

Tart Cherry Juice Decreases Oxidative Stress in Healthy Older Men and Women

http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/10/1896.long

Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-7-17

The role of Montmorency cherries in exercise and health www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25794236

Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23727631